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Translating to and from a known language provides useful beginning exercises in learning a new one. The following provides examples.

Cover the right side of the page and make a serious attempt to translate the sentences on the left to English; that is, state succinctly in English what the verb defined by each sentence does. Use any available aids, including the dictionary and experimentation on the computer:

 f1=: <: Decrement (monad); Less or equal f2=: f1&9 Less or equal 9 f3=: f2 *. >:&2 Interval test 2 to 9 (inclusive) f4=: f3 *. <. = ] In 2 to 9 and integer f5=: f3 +. <. = ] In 2 to 9 or integer g1=: %&1.8 Divide by 1.8 g2=: g1^:_1 Multiply by 1.8 g3=: -&32 Subtract 32 g4=: g3^:_1 Add 32 g5=: g1@g3 Celsius from Fahrenheit g6=: g5^:_1 Fahrenheit from Celsius h1=: >./ Maximum over list (monad) h2=: h1-<./ Spread. Try h2 b with the parabola: b=:(-&2 * -&3) -:i.12 h3=: h1@]-i.@[*h2@]%<:@[ Grid. Try 10 h3 b h4=: h3 <:/ ] Barchart. Try 10 h4 b h5=: {&' *' @ h4 Barchart. Try 10 h5 b

After entering the foregoing definitions, enter each verb name alone to display its definition, and learn to interpret the resulting displays. To see several forms of display, first enter 9!:3 (2 4 5) .

Cover the left side of the page, and translate the English definitions on the right back into J.

Exercises

12.1   These exercises are grouped by topic and organized like the section, with programs that are first to be read and then to be rewritten. However, a reader already familiar with a given topic might begin by writing.

A. Properties of numbers

 pn=: >:@i. Positive numbers (e.g. pn 9) rt=: pn |/ pn Remainder table dt=: 0&=@rt Divisibility table nd=: +/@dt Number of divisors prt=: 2&=@nd Prime test prsel=: prt # pn Prime select N=: >:@pn Numbers greater than 1 rtt=: ,@(N */ N) Ravelled times table aprt=: -.@(N e. rtt) Alternative test and selection (primes do not occur in the times table for N) apsel=: aprt # N pfac=: q: Prime factors first=: p:@i. First primes

B. Coordinate Geometry

Do experiments on the vector (or point) p=: 3 4 and the triangle represented by the table tri=: 3 2\$ 3 4 6 5 7 2

 L=: %:@:(+/)@:*:"1 Length of vector (See rank in the dictionary or in Section 20 of the Introduction) LR=:L"1 Length of rows in table disp=: ] - 1&|. Displacement between rows LS=: LR@disp Lengths of sides of figure sp=: -:@(+/)@LS Semiperimeter (try sp tri) H=: %:@(*/)@(sp,sp-LS) Heron's formula for area det=: -/ . * Determinant (See dictionary) SA=: det@(,.&0.5) Signed area. Try SA@|. sa=:det@(],.%@!@<:@#) General signed volume; try on the tetrahedron tet=:?4 3\$9 as well as on the triangle tri .

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