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21. Closure

Just as b imfam cm produces the immediate family of b, so does the phrase cm imfam cm produce the immediate families of each of the rows of cm. We will, however, use a new sparser connection matrix that will be more instructive, and will use powers of imfam to produce families of further generations, including an infinite power to give the closure of the connection matrix; that is, the connection matrix for all points reachable by a path of any length:
```   cm=: (i. =/ <:@i.) 8
<"2 cm imfam^:0 1 2 _ cm
+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
|0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0|0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0|0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1|
|0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0|0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0|0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1|
|0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0|0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0|0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1|
|0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0|0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1|
|0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1|
|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|
|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
```
The closure of cm can therefore be expressed as cm imfam^:_ cm, and a monadic closure function can be defined as follows:
```   (closure=: imfam^:_ ~) cm
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
```
The complete definition of the closure function may now be displayed as follows:
```   closure f.
([ +. +./ .*.)^:_~
```

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